Bjt in saturation region. This collector-emitter saturation bulk resistance ca...

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) - Introduction It was fou

The saturation region depends on Ic so it varies from 0.05V to 1.5 at max current. There are also extremely high hFE transistors (>1000) and some with extremely low Vce(sat) with high current in bulk low hFE devices.In cut off region, both emitter to base and base to collector junction is in the reverse bias and no current flows through the transistor. The transistor acts as an open switch. In the saturation region, both the junctions are in forwarding bias, and the transistor acts as a closed switch. In cut off region the output of the transistor VCE, IC ...least 0.6-0.7 volts, the transistor is in the cutoff region. In cutoff, the transistor appears as an open circuit between the collector and emitter terminals. In the circuit above, this implies Vout is equal to 10 volts. The second region is called “saturation”. This is where the base current has increased well Forward-active region is correct. Lecture 10: BJT Physics 16 Simplified Circuit Mode Saturation Region • In the saturation region, both junctions are forward-biased, and the transistor operates with a small voltage between collector and emitter. v CESAT is the saturation voltage for the npn BJT. No simplified expressions exist for 1. Here's a typical Ic vs Vce diagram showing the saturation region of a BJT. In this case if Ib is set at 20uA and Vce varies between 0 and 2V you can clearly see that Ic will also vary from about 12mA (Vce=2V) to about 8mA @ Vce = 0.5V (very non linear) to 0mA @ Vce = 0V.1. Here's a typical Ic vs Vce diagram showing the saturation region of a BJT. In this case if Ib is set at 20uA and Vce varies between 0 and 2V you can clearly see that Ic will also …Saturated ( $ V_B>V_C$ for NPN). In active region, $ V_{BE}\approx 0.7V$ for silicon BJT, ...0. vce (sat) it means that the voltage of Vce is 0.6 in saturation mode of bjt. if. Ibβ>Ic BJT is in saturation. in active region. Ib = βIc. remove the bjt from the circuit then calculate the voltage across Vbe if Vbe is smaller than 0.7 (or threshold voltage of bjt) the BJT is in cutoff mode. Jun 12, 2007.0. vce (sat) it means that the voltage of Vce is 0.6 in saturation mode of bjt. if. Ibβ>Ic BJT is in saturation. in active region. Ib = βIc. remove the bjt from the circuit then calculate the voltage across Vbe if Vbe is smaller than 0.7 (or threshold voltage of bjt) the BJT is in cutoff mode. Jun 12, 2007.In cut off region, both emitter to base and base to collector junction is in the reverse bias and no current flows through the transistor. The transistor acts as an open switch. In the saturation region, both the junctions are in forwarding bias, and the transistor acts as a closed switch. In cut off region the output of the transistor VCE, IC ... VB = 4.78V V B = 4.78 V. The load line for the circuit in Example 5.4.1 5.4. 1 is shown in Figure 5.4.4 5.4. 4. Figure 5.4.4 5.4. 4: DC load line for the circuit of Figure 5.4.3 5.4. 3. Once again the proportions …1. In a BJT, Forward active mode is when Emitter Base Junction (EBJ) is forward biased and the Collector based junction (CBJ) is reverese biased. Saturation mode is when both Emitter Base Junction (EBJ) and the Collector based junction (CBJ) are forward biased. When you plot the output characteristics ( Ic Vs VCE ) the constant looking region ... The term bipolar refers to the use of both holes and electrons as current carriers in the transistor structure. Figure 1: Basic BJT structure. The pn junction joining the base region and the emitter region is called the base-emitter junction. The pn junction joining the base region and the collector region is called the base-collector junction.You cannot find it because there is no "Saturation current" in a real BJT. There will be many mode parameters in an Ebers-Moll model which you will be unable to find in a datasheet. Also note that there is no fixed point at which a BJT suddenly enters / goes out of saturation. It's more of a gradual thing. This behavior is not in the Ebers-moll ...Bjt Explanation Saturation. Yes, this is correct. The electric field of the depletion region (between the two junctions) can accelerate the charge carriers in the same direction as the diffusion current, and this current will be the collector-emitter current. Jan 26, 2021. #1.1. Active Region - the transistor operates as an amplifier and . Ic = β.Ib • • 2. Saturation -the transistor is "fully ON" operating as a switch and . Ic = I(saturation) • • 3. Cut-off -the transistor is "fullyOFF" operating as a switch and . Ic = 0. Typical Bipolar Transistor . The word . Transistor. is an acronym, and is a ...Active Region Saturation Region Cuto Region As long as v CE >v CEsat, BJT is in active region. v CEsat = 0.2 V. If v CE falls below v CEsat, BJT will enter into saturation region. S. Sivasubramani EE101 - BJT 8/ 60 Based on the operation, there are three different regions in the curve, at first, the active region, here the BJT will be operating normally and the emitter junction is reverse biased. Next comes the saturation region where both the emitter and collector junctions are forward biased.Sep 2, 2019 · SATURATION REGION (FULLY ON) A transistor is said to be saturated (Fully ON) when it is biased in such a way that current passes from the Emitter (E) to the Collector (C). In NPN and PNP bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), connecting the base (B) to the collector (C) makes the PN-junction from the base (B) to the emitter (E) to be forward bias. This collector-emitter saturation bulk resistance called RCE R C E is defined for Vce=Vce (sat) at Ic/Ib=10 at various currents. In some cases, the log-log, or linear graph of Ic vs Vce shows the linear property above 10% of Imax. example of Rce p.2 of 5 SOT-23. Prior to Zetex, you had to get a big power transistor in TO-3 can to get this low ... PNP BJT: Basic Operation NaE NdB VBE < 0 - ++-WE WB WC NaC Consider the action in the base first (VBE < 0 and VCB = 0) • The holes diffuse from the emitter, cross the depletion region, and enter the base • In the base, the holes are the minority carriers • In the base, the holes diffuse towards the collector Forward-active region is correct. Lecture 10: BJT Physics 16 Simplified Circuit Mode Saturation Region • In the saturation region, both junctions are forward-biased, and the transistor operates with a small voltage between collector and emitter. v CESAT is the saturation voltage for the npn BJT. No simplified expressions exist for Saturation Region: In saturation region, both of the junctions of the BJT are in forward bias. This region is used for the ON-state of a switch where; i c = i sat. I sat is the saturation current & it is the maximum amount of current flowing between emitter and collector when BJT is in saturation region. Since both junctions are in forward bias ...Of course,the highest saturation level is defined by the maximum collector current as provided by the specification sheet. Saturation conditions are normally avoided because the base–collector junction is no longer reverse-biased and the output amplified signal will be distorted. An oper-ating point in the saturation region is depicted in Fig ...• The transistor is said to now operate in the saturation region (not to be confused with the saturation region in BJTs) Wei ES154 - Lecture 12 7 Saturation Region v DS source drainchannel v DS = 0 v DS >= v GS - V t •As v DS increases, the channel gets smaller and smaller on the drain side until v ... • MOS vs. BJT – Current is quadratic with voltage in …A Bipolar Junction Transistor is a semiconductor device with three terminals. The three terminals are the collector, the base and the emitter. A small-amplitude signal applied at the base is received in amplified form at the collector of the transistor. ... Saturation Region. b. Cut-off Region. c. Active Region. d. None. Answer: (b) Saturation Region. Q3: When …Therefore, a D.C. analysis problem for a BJT operating in the active region reduces to: find one of these values , , B C E ii ori and find one of these values or ( or ) CE ECCB BC V VV V Saturation For the saturation mode, we know all the BJT voltages, but know nothing about BJT currents! Thus, for an analysis of circuit with a BJT in ...I can think of two possible motivations for using saturation: When a BJT is saturated, the calculations are simpler: ... that there are several reasonable BJT LED driver circuits with the transistors operating in the forward-active region. \$\endgroup\$ – W5VO. Apr 2, 2021 at 16:52.In a BJT, if the collector-base junction and the base-emitter junction are both reverse-biased, which region is the BJT operating in? a) Saturation region b) Active region c) Cutoff region d) Reverse active region View Answer. Answer: c Explanation: If the collector-base junction and the base-emitter junction are both reverse-biased, then the BJT …In an NPN in saturation mode Vcb is smaller, so small that the flow of electrons is influenced by Vcb. This is the red part of the graph in Andy's answer, a small change in Vce (which is just Vcb + Vbe) will cause a large change in Ic. In saturation many electrons make it to the base instead of being pulled into the collector. That makes the ...12/3/2004 Example A BJT Circuit in Saturation 1/7 Example: A BJT Circuit in Saturation Determine all currents for the BJT in the circuit below. 10.0 K 2.0 K 5.7 V 10 K 10.7 V β = 99 Hey! I remember this circuit, its just like a previous example. The BJT is in active mode! Let’s see if you are correct! ASSUME it is in active mode and ENFORCE VThe current gain BS in saturation region is BS = Ic(sat)/Ib. For an inverter circuit, BS = Ic(sat)/Ibf evaluated at storage time ts > 0. If Kf is the saturation overdrive factor: Kf = Ibf/Ibs then the transistor is saturated if ts > 0, then Ibf>Ibs, Ibx > 0 and Kf > 1.Figure 1. BJT characteristic curve The characteristics of each region of operation are summarized below. 1. cutoff region: B-E junction is reverse biased. No current flow 2. saturation region: B-E and C-B junctions are forward biased Ic reaches a maximum which is independent of IB and β. . No control. VCE <VBE 3. active region: 14. There is a precise definition and a sloppy one for saturation. I'll start with the precise one. That's pretty much it. The saturation region is precisely defined here. The sloppy one comes about because the practical behavior of different parameters of the BJT don't all neatly fall so perfectly on those lines.• Bi lBipolar JtiJunction TitTransistor (BJT) (C t’d)(Cont’d) – BJT operation in saturation mode –PNP BJT – Examples of small signal models Reading: Chapter 4.5‐4.6 EE105 Spring 2008 Lecture 4, Slide 1Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley Bipolar Transistor in Saturation EE105 Spring 2008 Lecture 4, Slide 2Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley 56). In NPN transistor __ terminal is given positive polarity? 57). A PNP BJT is said to be in ON when voltage of base with respect to emitter is ___? 58). What is the equation of current gain in BJT CB configuration? 59). What is the equation of resistance gain of BJT common base configuration? 60).When a vapor or liquid in a closed environment reaches an equilibrium between the amount of evaporating, condensing and returning molecules, the liquid or vapor is saturated. Saturated vapor is also known as dry vapor.Multiple BJT Networks Cascaded Systems •The output of one amplifier is the input to the next amplifier •The overall voltage gain is determined by the product of gains of the individual stages •The DC bias circuits are isolated from each other by the coupling capacitors •The DC calculations are independent of the cascadingThe active region is also known as saturation region in MOSFETs. However, naming it as saturation region may be misunderstood as the saturation region of BJT. Therefore, throughout this chapter, the name active region is used. The active region is characterized by a constant drain current, controlled by the gate-source voltage.In BJT for working in active region for a common emitter configuration emitter and base should be in forward bias and base and collector should be in reverse bias. But in case of voltage we say that base-collector voltage should be less than 0.4V. ... Here is a bipolar I_V plot; saturation is the far left region; notice all the lines merge in …Bipolar junction transistor is classified into two types namely PNP and NPN based on types of doping of the terminals. In NPN transistor, two semiconductor junctions are there which have a thin anode region doped with ‘P’ whereas PNP transistor includes two semiconductor junctions that include a thin cathode region doped with ‘N’. ... In the cut …The 0.4 V value is not so much a definition but an observation. In the active region, the curve is almost vertical; in the saturation region, the curve is almost horizontal; and there is a region in between. The exact value of V CE where the saturation region begins varies, and is different for other transistors.The fusion of these two diodes produces a three layer, two junction, three terminal device forming the basis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor, ... Active Region – the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = β*Ib; Saturation – the transistor is “Fully-ON” operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) Cut-off ...Oct 30, 2015 · The saturation region of a BJT (e.g. when turned on as a switch) corresponds to the triode/ohmic region of a MOSFET. Some authors also call the saturation region of a MOSFET the "active mode", which does match the terminology used for BJTs. But they also call the triode/ohmic region the "linear mode" which perhaps doesn't help that much because ... Jun 14, 2016 · Which quantity is getting saturated in so called 'saturation region' of BJT ? Obviously the collector current. It can be seen very clearly from the output characteristic graph that as you decrease the collector to emitter voltage, the corresponding current increases with reference to the DC load line. NPN Transistors are three-terminal, three-layer devices that can function as either amplifiers or electronic switches. In the previous tutorial we saw that the standard Bipolar Transistor or BJT, comes in two basic forms. An NPN ( N egative- P ositive- N egative) configuration and a PNP ( P ositive- N egative- P ositive) configuration.1. In a BJT, Forward active mode is when Emitter Base Junction (EBJ) is forward biased and the Collector based junction (CBJ) is reverese biased. Saturation mode is when both Emitter Base Junction (EBJ) and the Collector based junction (CBJ) are forward biased. When you plot the output characteristics ( Ic Vs VCE ) the constant looking region ...Mar 4, 2016 · 1. A BJT is NOT a FET or MOSFET. a FET has a drain-source resistance. if you know the load you gonna connect between the Vcc and the collector (assuming NPN). and you can calculate the voltage drop on your load on a given current. you can calculate a virtual resistance by (Vcc - Vload) / I if you have perfect resistor as load (Vcc - R*I)/I ... 12/3/2004 Example A BJT Circuit in Saturation 1/7 Example: A BJT Circuit in Saturation Determine all currents for the BJT in the circuit below. 10.0 K 2.0 K 5.7 V 10 K 10.7 V β = 99 Hey! I remember this circuit, its just like a previous example. The BJT is in active mode! Let’s see if you are correct! ASSUME it is in active mode and ENFORCE VAug 24, 2021 · The term "Saturation" means exactly the opposite for FETs and BJTs. The flat region is not in saturation for junction transistors. A transistor in saturation would be at the bottom left corner. By "Saturation voltage" they mean the collector to emitter voltage under the given conditions. Usually it is with a forced beta of 10 or 20. (c) Saturation region:Withbothdiodesforward-biasedinsaturation,thecol-lector current may be appreciable, but only a small voltage exists across the collector junction. This condition is nearly that of a closed switch. Operation of the BJT between cuto and saturation corresponds to the action of a switch.0. vce (sat) it means that the voltage of Vce is 0.6 in saturation mode of bjt. if. Ibβ>Ic BJT is in saturation. in active region. Ib = βIc. remove the bjt from the circuit then calculate the voltage across Vbe if Vbe is smaller than 0.7 (or threshold voltage of bjt) the BJT is in cutoff mode. Jun 12, 2007.Example: Acceptable VCC Region EE105Spring2008 Lecture4,Slide5Prof.Wu,UC Berkeley • In order to keep BJT at least in soft saturation region, the collector voltage must not fall below the base voltage by more than 400mV. • A linear relationship can be derived for VCC and RC and an acceptable region can be chosen. VIRV mVCC C C BE≥+−(400)Since the BJT is a nonlinear device, it is hard to pinpoint an exact voltage that corresponds to saturation mode operation as opposed to active mode. Therefore, circuit analysis typically involves assigning a saturation collector-emitter voltage, \$ V_{CEsat} \$ , below which the device is said to be operating in saturation and above which the ...The transistor can be used as a switch if biased in the saturation and cut-off regions. This allows current to flow (or not) in other parts of a circuit. Because a transistor ’s collector current is proportionally limited by its base current, it can be used as a sort of current-controlled switch. The current gain Ai of common collector BJT is given by the ratio of output current IE to input Current IB: IE = IC + IB. Ai = IE / IB. Ai = (IC + IB) / IB. Ai = (IC / IB) + 1. Ai = β + 1. Related Formulas and Equations Posts: Diode Formulas & Equations – Zenner, Schockley & Rectifier. Resistance, Capacitance & Inductance in Series-Parallel ...4.1(b) and 4.1(c). One type consists of two n regions separated by a p region (npn), and the other type consists of two p regions separated by n region (pnp). The term bipolar refers to the use of both holes and electrons as current carriers in the transistor structure. Figure 4.1 Basic BJT construction. [5]For best operation of a BJT, which region must the operating point be set at? a) Active region b) Cutoff region c) Saturation region d) Reverse active region ... Explanation: To obtain an approximate answer, under saturation the BJT is ON and hence acts as a short circuit. However, ideally a drop exists for the transistor which is a fixed value. For an …The BJT symbols and their corresponding block diagrams are shown on Figure 1. The BJT is fabricated with three separately doped regions. The npn device has one p region between two n regions and the pnp device has one n region between two p regions. The BJT has two junctions (boundaries between the n and the p regions). These junctions• Bi lBipolar JtiJunction TitTransistor (BJT) (C t’d)(Cont’d) – BJT operation in saturation mode –PNP BJT – Examples of small signal models Reading: Chapter 4.5‐4.6 EE105 Spring 2008 Lecture 4, Slide 1Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley Bipolar Transistor in Saturation EE105 Spring 2008 Lecture 4, Slide 2Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley1. Here's a typical Ic vs Vce diagram showing the saturation region of a BJT. In this case if Ib is set at 20uA and Vce varies between 0 and 2V you can clearly see that Ic will also …V CB = V CE – V BE = 3.55 V – 0.7 V = 2.85 V. Remember that the relation IC = ẞIB is only valid for transistors in the active region and does not work for transistors in saturation. Let’s do another slightly different example to illustrate how a BJT works. Ex 2: Take a gander at the circuit below. Beta is 100. A question about Vce of an NPN BJT in saturation region. Below is an NPN transistor symbol and the voltages at its terminals are Vb, Vc and Ve with respect to the ground: I read that: during the saturation the Vce = (Vc-Ve) settles to around 0.2V and the further increase in base current will not make Vce zero.The Bipolar Junction Transistor is a semiconductor device which can be used for switching or amplification. Unlike semiconductor diodes which are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material to form one simple pn-junction. The bipolar transistor uses one more layer of semiconductor material to produce a device with properties and ... Initially it will rise quite linearly, being in the ohmic or linear region, but it will eventually flatten out and despite raising further the current through the MOSFET will stay the same. As regards the definition of saturation, I …The transistor operates in saturation region when both the emitter and collector junctions are forward biased. As it is understood that, in the saturation region the transistor tends to behave as a closed switch, we can say that, IC = IE I C = I E. Where IC I C = collector current and IE I E = emitter current.Apr 12, 2012 · The BJT is formed by two p-n junction (either npn or pnp ), so at a first glance it's symmetrical. But both the concentration of dopant and the size of the regions (and more important: the area of the junctions) is different for the three regions. So it simply won't work at the full potential. (like using a reversed lever) Bipolar junction transistor is classified into two types namely PNP and NPN based on types of doping of the terminals. In NPN transistor, two semiconductor junctions are there which have a thin anode region doped with ‘P’ whereas PNP transistor includes two semiconductor junctions that include a thin cathode region doped with ‘N’. ... In the cut …The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is an active device. In simple terms, it is a current controlled valve. The base current (IB) controls the collector current (IC). The Field Effect Transistor (FET) is an active device. ... Saturation region: The transistor is on. The collector current varies very little with a change in the base current in the saturation …The term bipolar refers to the use of both holes and electrons as current carriers in the transistor structure. Figure 1: Basic BJT structure. The pn junction joining the base region and the emitter region is called the base-emitter junction. The pn junction joining the base region and the collector region is called the base-collector junction.MOSFET Question 4: The threshold voltage of an n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET is 0.5 V. When the device is biased at a gate voltage of 3 V, pinch-off would occur at a drain voltage of: 2 V. 2.5 V. 3 V. 1.5 V. Answer (Detailed Solution Below) Option 2 : …In a BJT in saturation the Vce of the BJT is roughly constant (and about 0.1 or 0.2 V). You are confusing saturation in a MOSFET with saturation in a BJT. Sep 23, 2014 #3 amenhotep. 29 1. ... Suggested for: Saturation region of a BJT BJT saturation explanation. Jan 27, 2021; Replies 5 Views 1K. Reverse saturation current and leakage …The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is an active device. In simple terms, it is a current controlled valve. The base current (IB) controls the collector current (IC). The Field Effect Transistor (FET) is an active device. ... Saturation region: The transistor is on. The collector current varies very little with a change in the base current in the saturation …With both junctions forward biased, a BJT is in saturation mode and facilitates high current conduction from the emitter to the collector (or the other direction in the case of NPN, …Explanation: If BJT is to act as a switch with negligible power dissipation, then BJT is operated in the cut-off and saturation region, as in the TTL family. When BJT has to be operated as a fast switch, then it is operated in the active and cut-off region, as in the ECL family.In an NPN in saturation mode Vcb is smaller, so small that the flow of electrons is influenced by Vcb. This is the red part of the graph in Andy's answer, a small change in Vce (which is just Vcb + Vbe) will cause a large change in Ic. In saturation many electrons make it to the base instead of being pulled into the collector. That makes the ...Aug 27, 2016 · 14. There is a precise definition and a sloppy one for saturation. I'll start with the precise one. That's pretty much it. The saturation region is precisely defined here. The sloppy one comes about because the practical behavior of different parameters of the BJT don't all neatly fall so perfectly on those lines. The Bipolar Junction Transistor (II) Regimes of Operation Outline • Regimes of operation • Large-signal equivalent circuit model • Output characteristics Reading Assignment: Howe and Sodini; Chapter 7, Sections 7.3, 7.4 & 7.5 Announcement: Quiz #2: April 25, 7:30-9:30 PM at Walker. Calculator Required. Open book.Apr 15, 2011 · 81. A transistor goes into saturation when both the base-emitter and base-collector junctions are forward biased, basically. So if the collector voltage drops below the base voltage, and the emitter voltage is below the base voltage, then the transistor is in saturation. Consider this Common Emitter Amplifier circuit. You cannot find it because there is no "Saturation current" in a real BJT. There will be many mode parameters in an Ebers-Moll model which you will be unable to find in a datasheet. Also note that there is no fixed point at which a BJT suddenly enters / goes out of saturation. It's more of a gradual thing. This behavior is not in the Ebers-moll ...When driven into either cutoff or saturation mode, the BJT effectively functions more like a binary (on/off) circuit switch. In addition to amplification ...d) I E /I B. View Answer. 10. A power BJT is used as a power control switch by biasing it in the cut off region (off state) or in the saturation region (on state). In the on state. a) both the base-emitter & base-collector junctions are forward biased. b) the base-emitter junction is reverse biased, and the base collector junction is forward ...Example: A BJT Circuit in Saturation Determine all currents for the BJT in the circuit below. 10.7 V 10.0 K Hey! I remember this circuit, its just like a previous example. The BJT is in …The active region is also known as saturation region in MOSFETs. However, naming it as saturation region may be misunderstood as the saturation region of BJT. Therefore, throughout this chapter, the name active region is used. The active region is characterized by a constant drain current, controlled by the gate-source voltage.This collector-emitter saturation bulk resistance called RCE R C E is defined for Vce=Vce (sat) at Ic/Ib=10 at various currents. In some cases, the log-log, or linear graph of Ic vs Vce shows the linear property above 10% of Imax. example of Rce p.2 of 5 SOT-23. Prior to Zetex, you had to get a big power transistor in TO-3 can to get this low ...In cutoff mode, the brake is engaged (zero base current), preventing motion (collector current). Active mode is the automobile cruising at a constant, controlled speed (constant, controlled collector current) as dictated by the driver. Saturation the automobile driving up a steep hill that prevents it from going as fast as the driver wishes.Lecture 12-2 BJT Circuit Analysis • SPICE solves the system of nonlinear equations to obtain the voltages and currents • Is this circuit in the active region? Q1 Default RB 100E3Ω + 2V VIN RC 1E3Ω + 5V VCC IB 12.206 µA + VOUT 3.779 V +-VBE 779.365 mV IC 1.221 mASaturation region; Let's discuss the above four regions of BJT. Here, we will consider the NPN transistor for further explanation. The NPN bipolar junction transistor configuration with the emitter junction as the input is shown below: Forward active region. It is the region of operation when the base-emitter junction is forward-biased.Saturation Region Cutoff Region I B = 0 The Common- Collector biasing circuit is basically equivalent to the common-emitter biased circuit except instead of looking at I C ... = I C /I E that means I C ~I E. Eber-Moll BJT Model The Eber-Moll Model for BJTs is fairly complex, but it is valid in all regions of BJT operation. The circuit diagram. So for a BJT to act as an open switch, all you need to do is to mIntroduction to Bipolar Junction Transistors. The Bipolar Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) has basically three (3) operating regions. These are; Cut off region (FULLY OFF) Saturation region (FULLY ON) Active region. CUTOFF REGION (FULLY OFF) In cut off or fully off region, the transistor is bias in such a way that both junctions are reverse so that no current will pass from the emitter (E) to the ... Figure 6. Common emitter BJT circuit for de 81. A transistor goes into saturation when both the base-emitter and base-collector junctions are forward biased, basically. So if the collector voltage drops below the base voltage, and the emitter voltage is below the base voltage, then the transistor is in saturation. Consider this Common Emitter Amplifier circuit.Operation of Bipolar Junction Transistor. Operating regions of BJT are the saturated region, the cut-off region, and the active region. Saturation Region. The starting point of the turn is called the saturation region. The Saturation area is in the middle of the origin and constant point where the collector current becomes constant. Cut Off Region When a MOSFET is operated as a controlled current devic...

Continue Reading